This document describes the LoRaWANTM network protocol which is optimized for battery-powered end-devices that may be either mobile or mounted at a fixed location. LoRaWAN networks typically are laid out in a star-of-stars topology in which gateways relay messages between end-devices2 and a central Network Server the Network Server routes the packets from each device of the network to the associated Application Server. To secure radio transmissions the LoRaWAN protocol relies on symmetric cryptography using session keys derived from the device’s root keys. In the backend the storage of the device’s root keys and the associated key derivation operations are insured by a Join Server.
Note the following errata on this document: